What a malicious matrix homeserver admin can do

Jul 13, 2022

I run my own Matrix homeserver that I share with friends and family. Ever since I started working for Element back in February of 2020, I've learned a lot more about the Matrix protocol and what's possible to do with it. During a conversation with a few privacy minded friends that use my HS (HomeServer), I pointed out that the admin of a homeserver has a lot of power over their accounts and that they as users explicitly trust the admin. In this post, I want to explore and document the ways a malicious admin can mess with the privacy of a Matrix account. Note: malicious admin in this case can also mean a hacked admin.

I'll talk specifically about Synapse, because that's the homeserver implementation I'm most familiar with, but the same arguments should apply to both Dendrite and Conduit, since they're not implementation specific but about the protocol itself. Moreover, I'll approach this from the perspective of a group of people, where everyone is using a homeserver they trust and they trust everyone in the rooms they participate, but one of the users is on a malicious homeserver.

Passive information gathering

There's a lot of passive information gathering a malicious admin can do just by querying the Synapse database and this can happen retroactively. Some of the (meta)data include:

  • Chat history of any unencrypted room (duh!)

  • Information about the users of their homeserver (duh!), like devices, IPs, etc.

  • Reactions to end-to-end-encrypted (e2ee) messages, because reactions aren't encrypted.

  • Room related metadata (even for e2ee rooms), room participants and their avatars/nicks, the room topic, power levels, number of messages people sent and when, etc.

  • URL previews of shared links (if enabled on a per room setting)

Active attacks

A malicious admin can perform active attacks against their users and the rooms they participate in if they want. Some of them might be easy to spot from the client's perspective, others might not.

Messing with rooms

Matrix has the notion of state events which are the events that specify what a room looks like. They specify which users are part of the room, which users are banned, the power levels of users, the name and the topic of the room, etc. These events aren't e2ee and so, a malicious admin can both read them and send their own events by impersonating a user of their homeserver. This can mainly lead to social engineering attacks. I'll list a few ways to social engineer and exploit people, as there are multiple ways to do so. I'll be using @victim:example.com as the account the malicious admin is impersonating.

  • React to messages as the user being impersonated. The malicious admin won't know the content of the message they're reacting to, but they'll be able to see others' reactions to it.

  • Set the room topic to an attacker controlled URL. Every participant in the room, regardless of homeserver, will see this as being set by `@victim:example.com`, a user they personally trust. A drive-by attack or a leak of the IP address of third party users is possible this way.

  • Invite accounts into the room. The newly joined account won't be able to read past e2ee messages, but any messages sent after they joined will be visible given the default settings of most clients.

  • Kick and ban people out of the room, which isn't that bad in itself, but can be disruptive. Similarly, they can increase the power level of other users in the room.

  • Send tombstone events, marking the room as being replaced for most clients and prevent further message sending to it.

In general, a room admin has multiple ways to destroy or mess up a room completely, to the point that the only solution is to re-create the room from scratch.

Messing with the user's devices

The above attacks can be performed simply by impersonating users without adding any new devices to their account. However, a malicious admin can simply add a new device on a user's account, thus allowing the sending and receiving of e2ee messages.

In most clients, this will show up as an unverified device, resulting in a red shield icon to be added in the room to showcase the presence of the unverified device. My personal experience is that most people, even privacy minded tech savvy ones, simply ignore this for various reasons. I'm guilty of ignoring this as well. There's however a per session and per room setting to disable your client from sending messages to unverified devices, if one wants to be completely safe.

In most cases, the attacked user will get a popup in their client that a new unverified device was added. There are ways to circumvent this by not reporting this new device to the user, however I don't know if encryption will continue working properly for the user in this case.


You can't prevent a malicious admin from reading the various (meta)data or irreversibly messing up a room, if the user on their homeserver has sufficient power levels. You can, however, prevent them from reading e2ee messages, if everyone follows proper device hygiene and doesn't send messages to unverified sessions.

A possible solution for this type of problems would be for peer-to-peer (p2p) Matrix to become a reality. In a p2p setup, a device (like a mobile phone) acts as both a client and a server at the same time. This completely removes the third party admin from the picture, effectively making the users the admins of their own homeserver!

Tags: matrix security